[Japanese] toilets are not garbage cans: Discriminatory multilingual signage in the Linguistic Landscape of Japan (2024)

  1. Home
  2. e-Journals
  3. Linguistic Landscape
  4. Online First Articles
  5. Online First Article
  • Navigate this Journal
  • About
  • Online First
  • Current issue
  • Previous issues
  • Submit a paper
  • Editorial information

[Japanese] toilets are not garbage cans: Discriminatory multilingual signage in the Linguistic Landscape of Japan (1)

    GBP

    • Discriminatory multilingual signage in the Linguistic Landscape of Japan

    • Author(s):Keolakawai K.G. Spencer[Japanese] toilets are not garbage cans: Discriminatory multilingual signage in the Linguistic Landscape of Japan (2)
    • Source:Linguistic Landscape
      Available online:02 July 2024
    • DOI:https://doi.org/10.1075/ll.23076.spe
      • Received:20 Oct 2023
      • Accepted:25 Apr 2024
      • Version of Record published :02 Jul 2024

    Abstract

    Abstract

    Traditional linguistic landscape research focuses on the diversity, vitality, and structure of languages in publicspaces. However, this study takes a critical lens and examines how certain multilingual signage reflects the normalised, harmfulideologies which target minorities in Japan. The study reveals examples of punitive multilingualism, highlighting the informationdisparities between languages in public signage found in Aichi, Hokkaido, and on the Internet. The paper discusses instances ofdiscriminatory public signage, including online advertisem*nts, based on the premise that foreigners are unruly, and officialgovernment signage that appears to target foreigners. The study also delves into problematic instructions posted in publicrestrooms, showing how the presentation of language(s) can reinforce stereotypes and implicit bias. Through a critical analysis ofmultilingual signage, this study reveals the challenges and consequences of punitive multilingualism in the context of Japanesesociolinguistics.

    © John Benjamins Publishing Company

    [Japanese] toilets are not garbage cans: Discriminatory multilingual signage in the Linguistic Landscape of Japan (3)

    Article metrics loading...

    /content/journals/10.1075/ll.23076.spe

    2024-07-02

    2024-07-10

    • From This Site

      /content/journals/10.1075/ll.23076.spe

      dcterms_title,dcterms_subject,pub_keyword

      -contentType:Journal -contentType:Contributor -contentType:Concept -contentType:Institution

      10

      5

    [Japanese] toilets are not garbage cans: Discriminatory multilingual signage in the Linguistic Landscape of Japan (4)

    Full text loading...

    References

    1. Afifah, M.

      (2022) Japanese and Indonesian prohibitive expressions on prohibition signs at train stations: A linguistic landscape study. Jurnal Pendidikan dan Pengajaran Bahasa Jepang, (), –. 10.17509/japanedu.v7i2.51851

      https://doi.org/10.17509/japanedu.v7i2.51851[Google Scholar]
    2. Al-Athwary, A.

      (2022) Linguistic landscape in Najran: A sociolinguistic approach. Theory and Practice in Language Studies, (), –. 10.17507/tpls.1212.11

      https://doi.org/10.17507/tpls.1212.11[Google Scholar]
    3. Angermeyer, P. S.

      (2015) Speak English or what? Codeswitching and interpreter use in New York city courts. New York: Oxford University Press.

      [Google Scholar]
    4. Angermeyer, P. S.

      (2017) Controlling Roma refugees with ‘Google-Hungarian’: Indexing deviance, contempt, and belonging in Toronto’s linguistic landscape. Language in Society, (), –. 10.1017/S0047404516001020

      https://doi.org/10.1017/S0047404516001020[Google Scholar]
    5. Angermeyer, P. S.

      (2022) Translation as discrimination: Sociolinguistics and inequality in multilingual institutional contexts. Language in Society, , –. 10.1017/S0047404522000422

      https://doi.org/10.1017/S0047404522000422[Google Scholar]
    6. Backhaus, P.

      (2007) Linguistic landscapes: A comparative study of urban multilingualism in Tokyo. Bristol: Multilingual Matters.

      [Google Scholar]
    7. Backhaus, P.

      (2010) Multilingualism in Japanese public space: Reading the signs. Japanese Studies, (), –. 10.1080/10371397.2010.518598

      https://doi.org/10.1080/10371397.2010.518598[Google Scholar]
    8. Backhaus, P.

      (2019) Linguistic landscape. InP. Heinrich & Y. Ohara (Eds.), Routledge handbook of Japanese sociolinguistics, (pp.–). New York: Routledge. 10.4324/9781315213378‑10

      https://doi.org/10.4324/9781315213378-10[Google Scholar]
    9. Banda, F. & Jimaima, H.

      (2017) Linguistic landscapes and the sociolinguistics of language vitality in multilingual contexts of Zambia. Multilingua, (), –. 10.1515/multi‑2017‑3047

      https://doi.org/10.1515/multi-2017-3047[Google Scholar]
    10. Barni, M. & Bagna, C.

      (2010) Linguistic Landscape and language vitality. InE. Shohamy, E. Ben-Rafael, & M. Barni (Eds.), Linguistic Landscape in the city, (pp.–). Bristol: Multilingual Matters. 10.21832/9781847692993‑003

      https://doi.org/10.21832/9781847692993-003[Google Scholar]
    11. Evacomics

      Evacomics (2019) I show the cultural differences between Japan and other countries (30 pics) (accessed2023, September 22) https://www.boredpanda.com/comics-cultural-differences-japan-evacomics/?utm_source=google&utm_medium=organic&utm_campaign=organic

    12. Gramigna, R.

      (2013) Toilet cultures: Boundaries, dirt and disgust. InA. Kannike & P. Laviolette (Eds.), Things in Culture, Culture in Things. Approaches to Culture Theory 3, –. Tartu: University of Tartu Press.

      [Google Scholar]
    13. Gustafsson, K.

      (2016) Routinised recognition and anxiety: Understanding the deterioration in Sino-Japanese relations. Review of International Studies, (): –. 10.1017/S0260210515000546

      https://doi.org/10.1017/S0260210515000546[Google Scholar]
    14. Higgins, C.

      (2015) Earning capital in Hawai‘i’s linguistic landscape. InR. Tupas (Ed.), Unequal Englishes: The politics of Englishes today, –. London: Palgrave Macmillan. 10.1057/9781137461223_9

      https://doi.org/10.1057/9781137461223_9[Google Scholar]
    15. Hinnenkamp, Volker[Google Scholar]
    16. Hupp, S. L.

      (2017) The experiences and perceptions of microaggressions against American Assistant Language Teachers living in Japan. (Master’s thesis). University of Arkansas.

      [Google Scholar]
    17. Isono, H. & Uenaka, J.

      (2014) Ōsaka Dōtonbori no tagengo keikan: Gaikokujin ni muketa minkan hyōji o chūshin ni [The multilingual landscape of Dotonbori, Osaka: A close look at non-governmental signs]. Nihongo kenkyū: –.

      [Google Scholar]
    18. Kubota, R.

      (2019) English in Japan. InP. Heinrich & Y. Ohara (Eds.), Routledge handbook of Japanese sociolinguistics, (pp.–). Milton Park/New York: Routledge. 10.4324/9781315213378‑7

      https://doi.org/10.4324/9781315213378-7[Google Scholar]
    19. Lee, E. & Olsen, J. E.

      (2015) Multiculturalism in Japan: An analysis and critique. Kwansei Gakuin University Journal of International Studies, (), –.

      [Google Scholar]
    20. Long, D.

      (2010) Amami kotoba no gengo keikan [The linguistic landscape of the Amami language]. InJ. Uchida, S. Nakai, O. Nakamura & H. Kanaseki (Eds.), Higashi ajia naikai no kankyō to bunka, (pp.–). Toyama: Katsura Shobō.

      [Google Scholar]
    21. Long, D. & Nakai, S.

      (2014) Researching non-standard dialect usage in linguistic landscapes. InA. Barysevich, A. D’arcy & D. Heap (Eds.), Proceedings of the 14th International Conference on Methods in Dialectology, –. Frankfurt: Peter Lang.

      [Google Scholar]
    22. Masai, Y.

      (1972) Tōkyō no seikatsu chizu [Living map of Tokyo]. Tokyo: Jiji Tsūshinsha.

      [Google Scholar]
    23. Ministry of Foreign Affairs

      Ministry of Foreign Affairs (2013) Recent Japan-Taiwan Relations and the Taiwan situation. Retrieved fromhttps://www.mofa.go.jp/region/asia-paci/taiwan/pdfs/japan-taiwan_relations.pdf

    24. Morish*ta, M.

      (2022) Nihon no gengo keikan ni okeru eigo no goyō keikō [Non-native English expressions found in linguistic landscapes of Japan]. Gengogakushū to kyōiku gengogaku 2021: –.

      [Google Scholar]
    25. Morita, L.

      (2015) Some manifestations of Japanese exclusionism. SAGE Open, (). 10.1177/2158244015600036

      https://doi.org/10.1177/2158244015600036[Google Scholar]
    26. Nagoya Convention & Visitors Bureau

      Nagoya Convention & Visitors Bureau (n.d.). Osu/Kanayama: Asunal Kanayama [Web log post]. Retrieved fromhttps://www.nagoya-info.jp/en/spot/detail/25/

    27. Oshima, K.

      (2014) Perception of hafu or mixed-race people in Japan: Group-session studies among hafu students at a Japanese university. Intercultural Communication Studies, (): –.

      [Google Scholar]
    28. Piller, I.

      (2016) Linguistic diversity in a time of crisis: An introduction to applied sociolinguistics. New York: Oxford University Press.

      [Google Scholar]
    29. Runcieman, A. J.

      (2022) Translanguaging in court proceedings: How interpreter pedagogy needs to address monolingual ideologies in court interpreting that delegitimize litigants’ voices. International Journal of Interpreter Education, (): –. 10.34068/ijie.14.01.03

      https://doi.org/10.34068/ijie.14.01.03[Google Scholar]
    30. Seiger, F.

      (2019) ‘Mixed’ Japanese-Filipino identities under Japanese multiculturalism. Social Identities, (): –. 10.1080/13504630.2018.1499225

      https://doi.org/10.1080/13504630.2018.1499225[Google Scholar]
    31. Taitō City

      Taitō City (2022, January7). Gaikokujin kankōkyaku no ukeire ni benrina sīru/panfuretto o haifush*teimasu (shokuzai hyouji, toire no riyō shikata nado) [Distributing helpful stickers and pamphlets for welcoming foreign tourists (ingredient display, how to use the toilet, et cetera)]. Retrieved fromhttps://www.city.taito.lg.jp/bunka_kanko/anzentaisaku/anshintaisaku/anshikanko/siruhaihu.html

    32. Tan, M. S. & Ben Said, S.

      (2015) Linguistic landscape and exclusion: An examination of language representation in disaster signage in Japan. InR. Rubdy, S. B. Said (Eds.), Conflict, Exclusion and Dissent in the Linguistic Landscape. London: Palgrave Macmillan. 10.1057/9781137426284_7

      https://doi.org/10.1057/9781137426284_7[Google Scholar]
    33. Terao, S.

      (2009) Chihōtoshi ni okeru tagengo hyōji: Minokamo-shi ni okeru nanbei shusshin muke hyōji wo reiji to sh*te [Multilingual signage in suburban cities: The case of signage directed toward South Americans in Minokamo City]. Kōbe daigaku ryūgakusē sentā kiyō: –. 10.24546/81001034

      https://doi.org/10.24546/81001034[Google Scholar]
    34. Tokunaga, T.

      (2011) ‘I’m not going to be in Japan forever’: How Filipina immigrant youth in Japan construct the meaning of home. Ethnography and Education, (): –. 10.1080/17457823.2011.587358

      https://doi.org/10.1080/17457823.2011.587358[Google Scholar]
    35. Tsuda, T.

      (2000) Acting Brazilian in Japan: Ethnic resistance among return migrants. Ethnology(): –. 10.2307/3773795

      https://doi.org/10.2307/3773795[Google Scholar]
    36. Usui, A.

      (2020) Gaikokujin shūjū chīki ni mirareru gengo hyōji ni tuite: Genjō no kadai to kongo no kyōsei shakai e mukete [On language in signage seen in foreigner-concentrated areas: Current challenges and toward a society of coexistence]. (Unpublished bachelor’s thesis). Nanzan University.

      [Google Scholar]
    37. Wang, J.

      (2015) Linguistic Landscape on campus in Japan– A case study of signs in Kyushu University. Intercultural Communication Studies, (): –.

      [Google Scholar]
    38. Yoneoka, J. & Saito, C.

      (2017) Globalization of the Japanese ladies’ room: Multilingual signage needs and issues. Asian English Studies: –. 10.50875/asianenglishstudies.19.0_58

      https://doi.org/10.50875/asianenglishstudies.19.0_58[Google Scholar]
    39. Yubisashi

      Yubisashi (2017) Gaikokujin no manā taisaku: Yubisashi inbaundo sutikā [Countermeasures for foreigners’ manners: Yubisashi Inbound stickers] (Web log post). Retrieved fromhttps://biz.yubisashi.com/sticker_inbound/

    http://instance.metastore.ingenta.com/content/journals/10.1075/ll.23076.spe

    [Japanese] toilets are not garbage cans: Discriminatory multilingual signage in the Linguistic Landscape of Japan (5)

    [Japanese] toilets are not garbage cans

    /content/journals/10.1075/ll.23076.spe

    /content/journals/10.1075/ll.23076.spe

    [Japanese] toilets are not garbage cans: Discriminatory multilingual signage in the Linguistic Landscape of Japan (6)

    Data & Media loading...

    • Article Type:Research Article

    Keywords: 日本の社会言語学;情報の格差;Linguistic Landscape;Japanese sociolinguistics;information disparities;言語景観;懲罰的多言語主義;多言語看板;punitive multilingualism;multilingual signage

    Most Cited

      • LL research as expanding language and language policy

        Author(s):Elana Shohamy

      • Translanguaging and linguistic landscapes

        Author(s):Durk GorterandJasone Cenoz

      • Making scents of the landscape

        Author(s):Alastair PennycookandEmi Otsuji

      • Skinscapes

        Author(s):Amiena PeckandChristopher Stroud

      • Opening spaces of learning in the linguistic landscape

        Author(s):David Malinowski

      • The critical turn in LL: New methodologies and new items in LL

        Author(s):Monica BarniandCarla Bagna

      • LL explorations and methodological challenges: Analysing France’s regional languages

        Author(s):Robert Blackwood

      • Linguistic landscapes in an era of multiple globalizations

        Author(s):Eliezer Ben-RafaelandMiriam Ben-Rafael

      • Why diachronicity matters in the study of linguistic landscapes

        Author(s):Aneta PavlenkoandAlex Mullen

      • The performativity of the body: Turbulent spaces in Greece

        Author(s):E. Dimitris KitisandTommaso M. Milani

    • More Less
    [Japanese] toilets are not garbage cans: Discriminatory multilingual signage in the Linguistic Landscape of Japan (2024)

    References

    Top Articles
    Latest Posts
    Article information

    Author: Terence Hammes MD

    Last Updated:

    Views: 6414

    Rating: 4.9 / 5 (49 voted)

    Reviews: 88% of readers found this page helpful

    Author information

    Name: Terence Hammes MD

    Birthday: 1992-04-11

    Address: Suite 408 9446 Mercy Mews, West Roxie, CT 04904

    Phone: +50312511349175

    Job: Product Consulting Liaison

    Hobby: Jogging, Motor sports, Nordic skating, Jigsaw puzzles, Bird watching, Nordic skating, Sculpting

    Introduction: My name is Terence Hammes MD, I am a inexpensive, energetic, jolly, faithful, cheerful, proud, rich person who loves writing and wants to share my knowledge and understanding with you.